聊聊 SpringBoot 自动装配

springboot 自动装配调用链

springboot 相比 spring能更方便开发人员上手,比较重要的一点就是自动装配,大致来看下这个逻辑

public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(SpbDemoApplication.class, args);
	}

	/**
	 * Static helper that can be used to run a {@link SpringApplication} from the
	 * specified source using default settings.
	 * @param primarySource the primary source to load
	 * @param args the application arguments (usually passed from a Java main method)
	 * @return the running {@link ApplicationContext}
	 */

然后就是上面调用的 run 方法

public static ConfigurableApplicationContext run(Class<?> primarySource, String... args) {
	return run(new Class<?>[] { primarySource }, args);
}

/**
 * Static helper that can be used to run a {@link SpringApplication} from the
 * specified sources using default settings and user supplied arguments.
 * @param primarySources the primary sources to load
 * @param args the application arguments (usually passed from a Java main method)
 * @return the running {@link ApplicationContext}
 */

继续往下看

public static ConfigurableApplicationContext run(Class<?>[] primarySources, String[] args) {
	return new SpringApplication(primarySources).run(args);
}

调用SpringApplication的构造方法

/**
 * Create a new {@link SpringApplication} instance. The application context will load
 * beans from the specified primary sources (see {@link SpringApplication class-level}
 * documentation for details. The instance can be customized before calling
 * {@link #run(String...)}.
 * @param primarySources the primary bean sources
 * @see #run(Class, String[])
 * @see #SpringApplication(ResourceLoader, Class...)
 * @see #setSources(Set)
 */

public SpringApplication(Class<?>... primarySources) {
	this(null, primarySources);
}

/**
 * Create a new {@link SpringApplication} instance. The application context will load
 * beans from the specified primary sources (see {@link SpringApplication class-level}
 * documentation for details. The instance can be customized before calling
 * {@link #run(String...)}.
 * @param resourceLoader the resource loader to use
 * @param primarySources the primary bean sources
 * @see #run(Class, String[])
 * @see #setSources(Set)
 */
@SuppressWarnings({ "unchecked", "rawtypes" })
public SpringApplication(ResourceLoader resourceLoader, Class<?>... primarySources) {
	this.resourceLoader = resourceLoader;
	Assert.notNull(primarySources, "PrimarySources must not be null");
	this.primarySources = new LinkedHashSet<>(Arrays.asList(primarySources));
	this.webApplicationType = WebApplicationType.deduceFromClasspath();
   // 注意看这里的,通过 SpringFactories 获取
	this.bootstrapRegistryInitializers = getBootstrapRegistryInitializersFromSpringFactories();
	setInitializers((Collection) getSpringFactoriesInstances(ApplicationContextInitializer.class));
	setListeners((Collection) getSpringFactoriesInstances(ApplicationListener.class));
	this.mainApplicationClass = deduceMainApplicationClass();
}

这里就是重点了

private List<BootstrapRegistryInitializer> getBootstrapRegistryInitializersFromSpringFactories() {
	ArrayList<BootstrapRegistryInitializer> initializers = new ArrayList<>();
	getSpringFactoriesInstances(Bootstrapper.class).stream()
			.map((bootstrapper) -> ((BootstrapRegistryInitializer) bootstrapper::initialize))
			.forEach(initializers::add);
	initializers.addAll(getSpringFactoriesInstances(BootstrapRegistryInitializer.class));
	return initializers;
}
private <T> Collection<T> getSpringFactoriesInstances(Class<T> type) {
	return getSpringFactoriesInstances(type, new Class<?>[] {});
}

private <T> Collection<T> getSpringFactoriesInstances(Class<T> type, Class<?>[] parameterTypes, Object... args) {
	ClassLoader classLoader = getClassLoader();
	// Use names and ensure unique to protect against duplicates
   // 去加载所有FACTORIES_RESOURCE_LOCATION路径下面,也就是 META-INF/spring.factories
	Set<String> names = new LinkedHashSet<>(SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactoryNames(type, classLoader));
	List<T> instances = createSpringFactoriesInstances(type, parameterTypes, classLoader, args, names);
	AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.sort(instances);
	return instances;
}

/**
 * Load the fully qualified class names of factory implementations of the
 * given type from {@value #FACTORIES_RESOURCE_LOCATION}, using the given
 * class loader.
 * <p>As of Spring Framework 5.3, if a particular implementation class name
 * is discovered more than once for the given factory type, duplicates will
 * be ignored.
 * @param factoryType the interface or abstract class representing the factory
 * @param classLoader the ClassLoader to use for loading resources; can be
 * {@code null} to use the default
 * @throws IllegalArgumentException if an error occurs while loading factory names
 * @see #loadFactories
 */
public static List<String> loadFactoryNames(Class<?> factoryType, @Nullable ClassLoader classLoader) {
	ClassLoader classLoaderToUse = classLoader;
	if (classLoaderToUse == null) {
		classLoaderToUse = SpringFactoriesLoader.class.getClassLoader();
	}
	String factoryTypeName = factoryType.getName();
	return loadSpringFactories(classLoaderToUse).getOrDefault(factoryTypeName, Collections.emptyList());
}
   private static Map<String, List<String>> loadSpringFactories(ClassLoader classLoader) {
	Map<String, List<String>> result = cache.get(classLoader);
	if (result != null) {
		return result;
	}

	result = new HashMap<>();
	try {
           // 获取此 resources,作为 AutoConfiguration 的配置
		Enumeration<URL> urls = classLoader.getResources(FACTORIES_RESOURCE_LOCATION);
		while (urls.hasMoreElements()) {
			URL url = urls.nextElement();
			UrlResource resource = new UrlResource(url);
			Properties properties = PropertiesLoaderUtils.loadProperties(resource);
			for (Map.Entry<?, ?> entry : properties.entrySet()) {
				String factoryTypeName = ((String) entry.getKey()).trim();
				String[] factoryImplementationNames =
						StringUtils.commaDelimitedListToStringArray((String) entry.getValue());
				for (String factoryImplementationName : factoryImplementationNames) {
					result.computeIfAbsent(factoryTypeName, key -> new ArrayList<>())
							.add(factoryImplementationName.trim());
				}
			}
		}

		// Replace all lists with unmodifiable lists containing unique elements
		result.replaceAll((factoryType, implementations) -> implementations.stream().distinct()
				.collect(Collectors.collectingAndThen(Collectors.toList(), Collections::unmodifiableList)));
		cache.put(classLoader, result);
	}
	catch (IOException ex) {
		throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unable to load factories from location [" +
				FACTORIES_RESOURCE_LOCATION + "]", ex);
	}
	return result;
}

我们可以看下 spring-boot-autoconfigure 的 META-INF/spring.factories

# Initializers
org.springframework.context.ApplicationContextInitializer=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SharedMetadataReaderFactoryContextInitializer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.logging.ConditionEvaluationReportLoggingListener

# Application Listeners
org.springframework.context.ApplicationListener=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.BackgroundPreinitializer

# Environment Post Processors
org.springframework.boot.env.EnvironmentPostProcessor=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.integration.IntegrationPropertiesEnvironmentPostProcessor

# Auto Configuration Import Listeners
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.AutoConfigurationImportListener=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.ConditionEvaluationReportAutoConfigurationImportListener

# Auto Configuration Import Filters
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.AutoConfigurationImportFilter=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.OnBeanCondition,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.OnClassCondition,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.OnWebApplicationCondition

# 注意这里,其实就是类似于 dubbo spi 的通过 org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration作为 key
# 获取下面所有的 AutoConfiguration 配置类
# Auto Configure
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.admin.SpringApplicationAdminJmxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.aop.AopAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.amqp.RabbitAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.batch.BatchAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cache.CacheAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cassandra.CassandraAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.ConfigurationPropertiesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.LifecycleAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.MessageSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.PropertyPlaceholderAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.couchbase.CouchbaseAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.dao.PersistenceExceptionTranslationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ReactiveElasticsearchRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ReactiveElasticsearchRestClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.jdbc.JdbcRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.jpa.JpaRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.ldap.LdapRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.r2dbc.R2dbcDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.r2dbc.R2dbcRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.rest.RepositoryRestMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.web.SpringDataWebAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchRestClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.flyway.FlywayAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.freemarker.FreeMarkerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.groovy.template.GroovyTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.gson.GsonAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.h2.H2ConsoleAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hateoas.HypermediaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hazelcast.HazelcastAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hazelcast.HazelcastJpaDependencyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.http.HttpMessageConvertersAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.http.codec.CodecsAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.influx.InfluxDbAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.info.ProjectInfoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.integration.IntegrationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jackson.JacksonAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JdbcTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JndiDataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.XADataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceTransactionManagerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.JmsAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jmx.JmxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.JndiConnectionFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.activemq.ActiveMQAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.artemis.ArtemisAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jersey.JerseyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jooq.JooqAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jsonb.JsonbAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.kafka.KafkaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.availability.ApplicationAvailabilityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.ldap.embedded.EmbeddedLdapAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.ldap.LdapAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.liquibase.LiquibaseAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mail.MailSenderAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mail.MailSenderValidatorAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.embedded.EmbeddedMongoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.MongoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.MongoReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mustache.MustacheAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.neo4j.Neo4jAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.netty.NettyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.orm.jpa.HibernateJpaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.quartz.QuartzAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.r2dbc.R2dbcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.r2dbc.R2dbcTransactionManagerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketMessagingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketRequesterAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketServerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketStrategiesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.SecurityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.UserDetailsServiceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.SecurityFilterAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.reactive.ReactiveSecurityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.reactive.ReactiveUserDetailsServiceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.rsocket.RSocketSecurityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.saml2.Saml2RelyingPartyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.sendgrid.SendGridAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.session.SessionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.client.servlet.OAuth2ClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.client.reactive.ReactiveOAuth2ClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.resource.servlet.OAuth2ResourceServerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.resource.reactive.ReactiveOAuth2ResourceServerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.solr.SolrAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.sql.init.SqlInitializationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.task.TaskExecutionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.task.TaskSchedulingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.thymeleaf.ThymeleafAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.transaction.TransactionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.transaction.jta.JtaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.validation.ValidationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.client.RestTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.embedded.EmbeddedWebServerFactoryCustomizerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.HttpHandlerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.ReactiveWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.WebFluxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.error.ErrorWebFluxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.function.client.ClientHttpConnectorAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.function.client.WebClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.ServletWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.MultipartAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.WebMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.reactive.WebSocketReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.servlet.WebSocketServletAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.servlet.WebSocketMessagingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.webservices.WebServicesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.webservices.client.WebServiceTemplateAutoConfiguration

# Failure analyzers
org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.FailureAnalyzer=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisUrlSyntaxFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.diagnostics.analyzer.NoSuchBeanDefinitionFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.flyway.FlywayMigrationScriptMissingFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceBeanCreationFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.HikariDriverConfigurationFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.r2dbc.ConnectionFactoryBeanCreationFailureAnalyzer,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.session.NonUniqueSessionRepositoryFailureAnalyzer

# Template availability providers
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.template.TemplateAvailabilityProvider=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.freemarker.FreeMarkerTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mustache.MustacheTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.groovy.template.GroovyTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.thymeleaf.ThymeleafTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.JspTemplateAvailabilityProvider

# DataSource initializer detectors
org.springframework.boot.sql.init.dependency.DatabaseInitializerDetector=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.flyway.FlywayMigrationInitializerDatabaseInitializerDetector

上面根据 org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration 获取的各个配置类,在通过反射加载就能得到一堆 JavaConfig配置类,然后再根据 ConditionalOnProperty等条件配置加载具体的 bean,大致就是这么个逻辑