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聊一下 RocketMQ 的 NameServer 源码

前面介绍了,nameserver相当于dubbo的注册中心,用与管理broker,broker会在启动的时候注册到nameserver,并且会发送心跳给namaserver,nameserver负责保存活跃的broker,包括master和slave,同时保存topic和topic下的队列,以及filter列表,然后为producer和consumer的请求提供服务。

启动过程

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public static void main(String[] args) {
main0(args);
}

public static NamesrvController main0(String[] args) {

try {
NamesrvController controller = createNamesrvController(args);
start(controller);
String tip = "The Name Server boot success. serializeType=" + RemotingCommand.getSerializeTypeConfigInThisServer();
log.info(tip);
System.out.printf("%s%n", tip);
return controller;
} catch (Throwable e) {
e.printStackTrace();
System.exit(-1);
}

return null;
}

入口的代码时这样子,其实主要的逻辑在createNamesrvController和start方法,来看下这两个的实现

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public static NamesrvController createNamesrvController(String[] args) throws IOException, JoranException {
System.setProperty(RemotingCommand.REMOTING_VERSION_KEY, Integer.toString(MQVersion.CURRENT_VERSION));
//PackageConflictDetect.detectFastjson();

Options options = ServerUtil.buildCommandlineOptions(new Options());
commandLine = ServerUtil.parseCmdLine("mqnamesrv", args, buildCommandlineOptions(options), new PosixParser());
if (null == commandLine) {
System.exit(-1);
return null;
}

final NamesrvConfig namesrvConfig = new NamesrvConfig();
final NettyServerConfig nettyServerConfig = new NettyServerConfig();
nettyServerConfig.setListenPort(9876);
if (commandLine.hasOption('c')) {
String file = commandLine.getOptionValue('c');
if (file != null) {
InputStream in = new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(file));
properties = new Properties();
properties.load(in);
MixAll.properties2Object(properties, namesrvConfig);
MixAll.properties2Object(properties, nettyServerConfig);

namesrvConfig.setConfigStorePath(file);

System.out.printf("load config properties file OK, %s%n", file);
in.close();
}
}

if (commandLine.hasOption('p')) {
InternalLogger console = InternalLoggerFactory.getLogger(LoggerName.NAMESRV_CONSOLE_NAME);
MixAll.printObjectProperties(console, namesrvConfig);
MixAll.printObjectProperties(console, nettyServerConfig);
System.exit(0);
}

MixAll.properties2Object(ServerUtil.commandLine2Properties(commandLine), namesrvConfig);

if (null == namesrvConfig.getRocketmqHome()) {
System.out.printf("Please set the %s variable in your environment to match the location of the RocketMQ installation%n", MixAll.ROCKETMQ_HOME_ENV);
System.exit(-2);
}

LoggerContext lc = (LoggerContext) LoggerFactory.getILoggerFactory();
JoranConfigurator configurator = new JoranConfigurator();
configurator.setContext(lc);
lc.reset();
configurator.doConfigure(namesrvConfig.getRocketmqHome() + "/conf/logback_namesrv.xml");

log = InternalLoggerFactory.getLogger(LoggerName.NAMESRV_LOGGER_NAME);

MixAll.printObjectProperties(log, namesrvConfig);
MixAll.printObjectProperties(log, nettyServerConfig);

final NamesrvController controller = new NamesrvController(namesrvConfig, nettyServerConfig);

// remember all configs to prevent discard
controller.getConfiguration().registerConfig(properties);

return controller;
}

这个方法里其实主要是读取一些配置啥的,不是很复杂,

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public static NamesrvController start(final NamesrvController controller) throws Exception {

if (null == controller) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException("NamesrvController is null");
}

boolean initResult = controller.initialize();
if (!initResult) {
controller.shutdown();
System.exit(-3);
}

Runtime.getRuntime().addShutdownHook(new ShutdownHookThread(log, new Callable<Void>() {
@Override
public Void call() throws Exception {
controller.shutdown();
return null;
}
}));

controller.start();

return controller;
}

这个start里主要关注initialize方法,后面就是一个停机的hook,来看下initialize方法

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public boolean initialize() {

this.kvConfigManager.load();

this.remotingServer = new NettyRemotingServer(this.nettyServerConfig, this.brokerHousekeepingService);

this.remotingExecutor =
Executors.newFixedThreadPool(nettyServerConfig.getServerWorkerThreads(), new ThreadFactoryImpl("RemotingExecutorThread_"));

this.registerProcessor();

this.scheduledExecutorService.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Runnable() {

@Override
public void run() {
NamesrvController.this.routeInfoManager.scanNotActiveBroker();
}
}, 5, 10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

this.scheduledExecutorService.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Runnable() {

@Override
public void run() {
NamesrvController.this.kvConfigManager.printAllPeriodically();
}
}, 1, 10, TimeUnit.MINUTES);

if (TlsSystemConfig.tlsMode != TlsMode.DISABLED) {
// Register a listener to reload SslContext
try {
fileWatchService = new FileWatchService(
new String[] {
TlsSystemConfig.tlsServerCertPath,
TlsSystemConfig.tlsServerKeyPath,
TlsSystemConfig.tlsServerTrustCertPath
},
new FileWatchService.Listener() {
boolean certChanged, keyChanged = false;
@Override
public void onChanged(String path) {
if (path.equals(TlsSystemConfig.tlsServerTrustCertPath)) {
log.info("The trust certificate changed, reload the ssl context");
reloadServerSslContext();
}
if (path.equals(TlsSystemConfig.tlsServerCertPath)) {
certChanged = true;
}
if (path.equals(TlsSystemConfig.tlsServerKeyPath)) {
keyChanged = true;
}
if (certChanged && keyChanged) {
log.info("The certificate and private key changed, reload the ssl context");
certChanged = keyChanged = false;
reloadServerSslContext();
}
}
private void reloadServerSslContext() {
((NettyRemotingServer) remotingServer).loadSslContext();
}
});
} catch (Exception e) {
log.warn("FileWatchService created error, can't load the certificate dynamically");
}
}

return true;
}

这里的kvConfigManager主要是来加载NameServer的配置参数,存到org.apache.rocketmq.namesrv.kvconfig.KVConfigManager#configTable中,然后是以BrokerHousekeepingService对象为参数初始化NettyRemotingServer对象,BrokerHousekeepingService对象作为该Netty连接中Socket链接的监听器(ChannelEventListener);监听与Broker建立的渠道的状态(空闲、关闭、异常三个状态),并调用BrokerHousekeepingService的相应onChannel方法。其中渠道的空闲、关闭、异常状态均调用RouteInfoManager.onChannelDestory方法处理。这个BrokerHousekeepingService可以字面化地理解为broker的管家服务,这个类内部三个状态方法其实都是调用的org.apache.rocketmq.namesrv.NamesrvController#getRouteInfoManager方法,而这个RouteInfoManager里面的对象有这些

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public class RouteInfoManager {
private static final InternalLogger log = InternalLoggerFactory.getLogger(LoggerName.NAMESRV_LOGGER_NAME);
private final static long BROKER_CHANNEL_EXPIRED_TIME = 1000 * 60 * 2;
private final ReadWriteLock lock = new ReentrantReadWriteLock();
// topic与queue的对应关系
private final HashMap<String/* topic */, List<QueueData>> topicQueueTable;
// Broker名称与broker属性的map
private final HashMap<String/* brokerName */, BrokerData> brokerAddrTable;
// 集群与broker集合的对应关系
private final HashMap<String/* clusterName */, Set<String/* brokerName */>> clusterAddrTable;
// 活跃的broker信息
private final HashMap<String/* brokerAddr */, BrokerLiveInfo> brokerLiveTable;
// Broker地址与过滤器
private final HashMap<String/* brokerAddr */, List<String>/* Filter Server */> filterServerTable;

然后接下去就是初始化了一个线程池,然后注册默认的处理类this.registerProcessor();默认都是这个处理器去处理请求 org.apache.rocketmq.namesrv.processor.DefaultRequestProcessor#DefaultRequestProcessor然后是初始化两个定时任务

第一是每10秒检查一遍Broker的状态的定时任务,调用scanNotActiveBroker方法;遍历brokerLiveTable集合,查看每个broker的最后更新时间(BrokerLiveInfo.lastUpdateTimestamp)是否超过2分钟,若超过则关闭该broker的渠道并调用RouteInfoManager.onChannelDestory方法清理RouteInfoManager类的topicQueueTable、brokerAddrTable、clusterAddrTable、filterServerTable成员变量。

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this.scheduledExecutorService.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Runnable() {

@Override
public void run() {
NamesrvController.this.routeInfoManager.scanNotActiveBroker();
}
}, 5, 10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
public void scanNotActiveBroker() {
Iterator<Entry<String, BrokerLiveInfo>> it = this.brokerLiveTable.entrySet().iterator();
while (it.hasNext()) {
Entry<String, BrokerLiveInfo> next = it.next();
long last = next.getValue().getLastUpdateTimestamp();
if ((last + BROKER_CHANNEL_EXPIRED_TIME) < System.currentTimeMillis()) {
RemotingUtil.closeChannel(next.getValue().getChannel());
it.remove();
log.warn("The broker channel expired, {} {}ms", next.getKey(), BROKER_CHANNEL_EXPIRED_TIME);
this.onChannelDestroy(next.getKey(), next.getValue().getChannel());
}
}
}

public void onChannelDestroy(String remoteAddr, Channel channel) {
String brokerAddrFound = null;
if (channel != null) {
try {
try {
this.lock.readLock().lockInterruptibly();
Iterator<Entry<String, BrokerLiveInfo>> itBrokerLiveTable =
this.brokerLiveTable.entrySet().iterator();
while (itBrokerLiveTable.hasNext()) {
Entry<String, BrokerLiveInfo> entry = itBrokerLiveTable.next();
if (entry.getValue().getChannel() == channel) {
brokerAddrFound = entry.getKey();
break;
}
}
} finally {
this.lock.readLock().unlock();
}
} catch (Exception e) {
log.error("onChannelDestroy Exception", e);
}
}

if (null == brokerAddrFound) {
brokerAddrFound = remoteAddr;
} else {
log.info("the broker's channel destroyed, {}, clean it's data structure at once", brokerAddrFound);
}

if (brokerAddrFound != null && brokerAddrFound.length() > 0) {

try {
try {
this.lock.writeLock().lockInterruptibly();
this.brokerLiveTable.remove(brokerAddrFound);
this.filterServerTable.remove(brokerAddrFound);
String brokerNameFound = null;
boolean removeBrokerName = false;
Iterator<Entry<String, BrokerData>> itBrokerAddrTable =
this.brokerAddrTable.entrySet().iterator();
while (itBrokerAddrTable.hasNext() && (null == brokerNameFound)) {
BrokerData brokerData = itBrokerAddrTable.next().getValue();

Iterator<Entry<Long, String>> it = brokerData.getBrokerAddrs().entrySet().iterator();
while (it.hasNext()) {
Entry<Long, String> entry = it.next();
Long brokerId = entry.getKey();
String brokerAddr = entry.getValue();
if (brokerAddr.equals(brokerAddrFound)) {
brokerNameFound = brokerData.getBrokerName();
it.remove();
log.info("remove brokerAddr[{}, {}] from brokerAddrTable, because channel destroyed",
brokerId, brokerAddr);
break;
}
}

if (brokerData.getBrokerAddrs().isEmpty()) {
removeBrokerName = true;
itBrokerAddrTable.remove();
log.info("remove brokerName[{}] from brokerAddrTable, because channel destroyed",
brokerData.getBrokerName());
}
}

if (brokerNameFound != null && removeBrokerName) {
Iterator<Entry<String, Set<String>>> it = this.clusterAddrTable.entrySet().iterator();
while (it.hasNext()) {
Entry<String, Set<String>> entry = it.next();
String clusterName = entry.getKey();
Set<String> brokerNames = entry.getValue();
boolean removed = brokerNames.remove(brokerNameFound);
if (removed) {
log.info("remove brokerName[{}], clusterName[{}] from clusterAddrTable, because channel destroyed",
brokerNameFound, clusterName);

if (brokerNames.isEmpty()) {
log.info("remove the clusterName[{}] from clusterAddrTable, because channel destroyed and no broker in this cluster",
clusterName);
it.remove();
}

break;
}
}
}

if (removeBrokerName) {
Iterator<Entry<String, List<QueueData>>> itTopicQueueTable =
this.topicQueueTable.entrySet().iterator();
while (itTopicQueueTable.hasNext()) {
Entry<String, List<QueueData>> entry = itTopicQueueTable.next();
String topic = entry.getKey();
List<QueueData> queueDataList = entry.getValue();

Iterator<QueueData> itQueueData = queueDataList.iterator();
while (itQueueData.hasNext()) {
QueueData queueData = itQueueData.next();
if (queueData.getBrokerName().equals(brokerNameFound)) {
itQueueData.remove();
log.info("remove topic[{} {}], from topicQueueTable, because channel destroyed",
topic, queueData);
}
}

if (queueDataList.isEmpty()) {
itTopicQueueTable.remove();
log.info("remove topic[{}] all queue, from topicQueueTable, because channel destroyed",
topic);
}
}
}
} finally {
this.lock.writeLock().unlock();
}
} catch (Exception e) {
log.error("onChannelDestroy Exception", e);
}
}
}

第二个是每10分钟打印一次NameServer的配置参数。即KVConfigManager.configTable变量的内容。

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this.scheduledExecutorService.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Runnable() {

@Override
public void run() {
NamesrvController.this.kvConfigManager.printAllPeriodically();
}
}, 1, 10, TimeUnit.MINUTES);

然后这个初始化就差不多完成了,后面只需要把remotingServer start一下就好了

处理请求

直接上代码,其实主体是swtich case去判断

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@Override
public RemotingCommand processRequest(ChannelHandlerContext ctx,
RemotingCommand request) throws RemotingCommandException {

if (ctx != null) {
log.debug("receive request, {} {} {}",
request.getCode(),
RemotingHelper.parseChannelRemoteAddr(ctx.channel()),
request);
}


switch (request.getCode()) {
case RequestCode.PUT_KV_CONFIG:
return this.putKVConfig(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_KV_CONFIG:
return this.getKVConfig(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.DELETE_KV_CONFIG:
return this.deleteKVConfig(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.QUERY_DATA_VERSION:
return queryBrokerTopicConfig(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.REGISTER_BROKER:
Version brokerVersion = MQVersion.value2Version(request.getVersion());
if (brokerVersion.ordinal() >= MQVersion.Version.V3_0_11.ordinal()) {
return this.registerBrokerWithFilterServer(ctx, request);
} else {
return this.registerBroker(ctx, request);
}
case RequestCode.UNREGISTER_BROKER:
return this.unregisterBroker(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_ROUTEINTO_BY_TOPIC:
return this.getRouteInfoByTopic(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_BROKER_CLUSTER_INFO:
return this.getBrokerClusterInfo(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.WIPE_WRITE_PERM_OF_BROKER:
return this.wipeWritePermOfBroker(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_ALL_TOPIC_LIST_FROM_NAMESERVER:
return getAllTopicListFromNameserver(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.DELETE_TOPIC_IN_NAMESRV:
return deleteTopicInNamesrv(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_KVLIST_BY_NAMESPACE:
return this.getKVListByNamespace(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_TOPICS_BY_CLUSTER:
return this.getTopicsByCluster(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_SYSTEM_TOPIC_LIST_FROM_NS:
return this.getSystemTopicListFromNs(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_UNIT_TOPIC_LIST:
return this.getUnitTopicList(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_HAS_UNIT_SUB_TOPIC_LIST:
return this.getHasUnitSubTopicList(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_HAS_UNIT_SUB_UNUNIT_TOPIC_LIST:
return this.getHasUnitSubUnUnitTopicList(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.UPDATE_NAMESRV_CONFIG:
return this.updateConfig(ctx, request);
case RequestCode.GET_NAMESRV_CONFIG:
return this.getConfig(ctx, request);
default:
break;
}
return null;
}

以broker注册为例,

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case RequestCode.REGISTER_BROKER:
Version brokerVersion = MQVersion.value2Version(request.getVersion());
if (brokerVersion.ordinal() >= MQVersion.Version.V3_0_11.ordinal()) {
return this.registerBrokerWithFilterServer(ctx, request);
} else {
return this.registerBroker(ctx, request);
}

做了个简单的版本管理,我们看下前面一个的代码

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public RemotingCommand registerBrokerWithFilterServer(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, RemotingCommand request)
throws RemotingCommandException {
final RemotingCommand response = RemotingCommand.createResponseCommand(RegisterBrokerResponseHeader.class);
final RegisterBrokerResponseHeader responseHeader = (RegisterBrokerResponseHeader) response.readCustomHeader();
final RegisterBrokerRequestHeader requestHeader =
(RegisterBrokerRequestHeader) request.decodeCommandCustomHeader(RegisterBrokerRequestHeader.class);

if (!checksum(ctx, request, requestHeader)) {
response.setCode(ResponseCode.SYSTEM_ERROR);
response.setRemark("crc32 not match");
return response;
}

RegisterBrokerBody registerBrokerBody = new RegisterBrokerBody();

if (request.getBody() != null) {
try {
registerBrokerBody = RegisterBrokerBody.decode(request.getBody(), requestHeader.isCompressed());
} catch (Exception e) {
throw new RemotingCommandException("Failed to decode RegisterBrokerBody", e);
}
} else {
registerBrokerBody.getTopicConfigSerializeWrapper().getDataVersion().setCounter(new AtomicLong(0));
registerBrokerBody.getTopicConfigSerializeWrapper().getDataVersion().setTimestamp(0);
}

RegisterBrokerResult result = this.namesrvController.getRouteInfoManager().registerBroker(
requestHeader.getClusterName(),
requestHeader.getBrokerAddr(),
requestHeader.getBrokerName(),
requestHeader.getBrokerId(),
requestHeader.getHaServerAddr(),
registerBrokerBody.getTopicConfigSerializeWrapper(),
registerBrokerBody.getFilterServerList(),
ctx.channel());

responseHeader.setHaServerAddr(result.getHaServerAddr());
responseHeader.setMasterAddr(result.getMasterAddr());

byte[] jsonValue = this.namesrvController.getKvConfigManager().getKVListByNamespace(NamesrvUtil.NAMESPACE_ORDER_TOPIC_CONFIG);
response.setBody(jsonValue);

response.setCode(ResponseCode.SUCCESS);
response.setRemark(null);
return response;
}

可以看到主要的逻辑还是在org.apache.rocketmq.namesrv.routeinfo.RouteInfoManager#registerBroker这个方法里

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public RegisterBrokerResult registerBroker(
final String clusterName,
final String brokerAddr,
final String brokerName,
final long brokerId,
final String haServerAddr,
final TopicConfigSerializeWrapper topicConfigWrapper,
final List<String> filterServerList,
final Channel channel) {
RegisterBrokerResult result = new RegisterBrokerResult();
try {
try {
this.lock.writeLock().lockInterruptibly();

// 更新这个clusterAddrTable
Set<String> brokerNames = this.clusterAddrTable.get(clusterName);
if (null == brokerNames) {
brokerNames = new HashSet<String>();
this.clusterAddrTable.put(clusterName, brokerNames);
}
brokerNames.add(brokerName);

boolean registerFirst = false;

// 更新brokerAddrTable
BrokerData brokerData = this.brokerAddrTable.get(brokerName);
if (null == brokerData) {
registerFirst = true;
brokerData = new BrokerData(clusterName, brokerName, new HashMap<Long, String>());
this.brokerAddrTable.put(brokerName, brokerData);
}
Map<Long, String> brokerAddrsMap = brokerData.getBrokerAddrs();
//Switch slave to master: first remove <1, IP:PORT> in namesrv, then add <0, IP:PORT>
//The same IP:PORT must only have one record in brokerAddrTable
Iterator<Entry<Long, String>> it = brokerAddrsMap.entrySet().iterator();
while (it.hasNext()) {
Entry<Long, String> item = it.next();
if (null != brokerAddr && brokerAddr.equals(item.getValue()) && brokerId != item.getKey()) {
it.remove();
}
}

String oldAddr = brokerData.getBrokerAddrs().put(brokerId, brokerAddr);
registerFirst = registerFirst || (null == oldAddr);

// 更新了org.apache.rocketmq.namesrv.routeinfo.RouteInfoManager#topicQueueTable中的数据
if (null != topicConfigWrapper
&& MixAll.MASTER_ID == brokerId) {
if (this.isBrokerTopicConfigChanged(brokerAddr, topicConfigWrapper.getDataVersion())
|| registerFirst) {
ConcurrentMap<String, TopicConfig> tcTable =
topicConfigWrapper.getTopicConfigTable();
if (tcTable != null) {
for (Map.Entry<String, TopicConfig> entry : tcTable.entrySet()) {
this.createAndUpdateQueueData(brokerName, entry.getValue());
}
}
}
}

// 更新活跃broker信息
BrokerLiveInfo prevBrokerLiveInfo = this.brokerLiveTable.put(brokerAddr,
new BrokerLiveInfo(
System.currentTimeMillis(),
topicConfigWrapper.getDataVersion(),
channel,
haServerAddr));
if (null == prevBrokerLiveInfo) {
log.info("new broker registered, {} HAServer: {}", brokerAddr, haServerAddr);
}

// 处理filter
if (filterServerList != null) {
if (filterServerList.isEmpty()) {
this.filterServerTable.remove(brokerAddr);
} else {
this.filterServerTable.put(brokerAddr, filterServerList);
}
}

// 当当前broker非master时返回master信息
if (MixAll.MASTER_ID != brokerId) {
String masterAddr = brokerData.getBrokerAddrs().get(MixAll.MASTER_ID);
if (masterAddr != null) {
BrokerLiveInfo brokerLiveInfo = this.brokerLiveTable.get(masterAddr);
if (brokerLiveInfo != null) {
result.setHaServerAddr(brokerLiveInfo.getHaServerAddr());
result.setMasterAddr(masterAddr);
}
}
}
} finally {
this.lock.writeLock().unlock();
}
} catch (Exception e) {
log.error("registerBroker Exception", e);
}

return result;
}

这个是注册 broker 的逻辑,再看下根据 topic 获取 broker 信息和 topic 信息,org.apache.rocketmq.namesrv.processor.DefaultRequestProcessor#getRouteInfoByTopic 主要是这个方法的逻辑

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public RemotingCommand getRouteInfoByTopic(ChannelHandlerContext ctx,
RemotingCommand request) throws RemotingCommandException {
final RemotingCommand response = RemotingCommand.createResponseCommand(null);
final GetRouteInfoRequestHeader requestHeader =
(GetRouteInfoRequestHeader) request.decodeCommandCustomHeader(GetRouteInfoRequestHeader.class);

TopicRouteData topicRouteData = this.namesrvController.getRouteInfoManager().pickupTopicRouteData(requestHeader.getTopic());

if (topicRouteData != null) {
if (this.namesrvController.getNamesrvConfig().isOrderMessageEnable()) {
String orderTopicConf =
this.namesrvController.getKvConfigManager().getKVConfig(NamesrvUtil.NAMESPACE_ORDER_TOPIC_CONFIG,
requestHeader.getTopic());
topicRouteData.setOrderTopicConf(orderTopicConf);
}

byte[] content = topicRouteData.encode();
response.setBody(content);
response.setCode(ResponseCode.SUCCESS);
response.setRemark(null);
return response;
}

response.setCode(ResponseCode.TOPIC_NOT_EXIST);
response.setRemark("No topic route info in name server for the topic: " + requestHeader.getTopic()
+ FAQUrl.suggestTodo(FAQUrl.APPLY_TOPIC_URL));
return response;
}

首先调用org.apache.rocketmq.namesrv.routeinfo.RouteInfoManager#pickupTopicRouteDataorg.apache.rocketmq.namesrv.routeinfo.RouteInfoManager#topicQueueTable获取到org.apache.rocketmq.common.protocol.route.QueueData这里面存了 brokerName,再通过org.apache.rocketmq.namesrv.routeinfo.RouteInfoManager#brokerAddrTable里获取到 broker 的地址信息等,然后再获取 orderMessage 的配置。

简要分析了下 RocketMQ 的 NameServer 的代码,比较粗粒度。

请我喝杯咖啡